Friday, March 19, 2010

Hemlata Sarkar and the school she founded

Hemlata Sarkar

(Hemlata Sarkar)

The Maharani Girls' School, Darjeeling, was the first Indian managed privately run School for Indian girls in the district imparting modern education through the Bengali medium. The founder of the School was Hemlata Sarkar, the Daughter of Shibnath Shastri (a member of the Brahmo Samaj). Born in the year 1868 in the village of Majilpur as Hemlata Bhattacharya, she was disturbed that there was nothing that looked to the education of the girl child. After her marriage to Dr Bepin Behari Sarkar, she accompanied him to Darjeeling in the year 1907, since he had shifted his practice from Kathmandu to Darjeeling. They took up residence at North View, 437 Hill Cart Road. It was here that her concern for the education of the girl child increased. She was justifiably shocked when she found no schools for the girls of the Indian Community. Her daughters were refused admission to the all the English missionary School for girls namely, Loreto Convent, Darjeeling. However, instead of being a nagging petitioner to the government complaining about lack of facilities, she impelled herself to create them for the community.

Those were the days when Bengal reverberated with the call of equality of status for women as an essential pre-requisite for social reforms. Education for women was the only springboard for realising these lofty ideals. Without education the women could not even have attempted to break away from the strangle hood of the corrupt social system replete with ignorance, superstition and hyperorthodoxy. Among the giants of Bengal pursuing the goal of social emancipation was Pandit Shibnath Shastri.

With the blood of Pandit Shibnath Shastri flowing in her veins, Hemlata was no less an enthusiast. She had good social contacts with renowned personality of her time, which came in handy when she decided to open a school in Darjeeling. Among such valuable and friendly contacts were Suniti Devi, the Maharani of Cooch Behar (daughter of Mahatma Keshab Chandra Sen), the Maharani of Mayurbhanj Sucharu Devi (Suniti's younger sister) and the Maharani of Burdwan. In the year 1908,with the funds received from them for this noble cause, Hemlata Sarkar personally founded the oldest girls institution in Darjeeling. The naming of the school was also a matter of singular ingenuity; with so many Maharanis around it was simply named Maharani Girls' High School. It was first started at Oak Lodge as a primary school. The monthly rent was Rs 150. It's rolls showed an average attendance of 75 students of both sexes. Boys were enrolled only upto class IV; from class V onwards it was an exclusively girls school. The system continues even today. Within three years i.e. 1911, it was upgraded to a High School and in 1957 it was converted into High School Dr Bepin Sarkar took up the responsibility of the first Secretary of the school to help his wife. At the crossroads of Colonial History, Maharani offered a unique experience to its students. Some of the senior citizens of Darjeeling belonging to diverse communities -Nepalese, Lepchas, Tibetans, Mech Adivasis and Bengalis made up the earliest students. The first Matriculate to have passed out from this school in 1912 was Suniti Majumdar, who later became the daughter -in -law of Hemlata Sarkar. Among the students of Darjeeling to name a few were N Laden La, Kazi and Pasang Doma La-ex-headmistress, Minicipal Girls' High School. Among other notable students who later adorned the lives of eminent personalities were Rani Mahalanabis, wife of renowned statistician, Prasanta Mahalanabis and Aditi Sen, wife of Sri Manishi Sen, the last ICS, Sir Jadunath Sarkars daughter Roma Sarkar, Manorama Bose, retired chief inspector of schools and Sebati Mitra principal, Rani Birla College, Calcutta were all students here. Other ex-students of this school were Ila Hom and Meera Sanyal, who later became befitting partners of late Amal Hom and Hironmoy Sanyal, noted literateurs, social activists and nephews of the unjustly executed freedom fighter Sachindranuath Sanyal founder of the Hindustan Republican Party (1923) and India Against Colonialism League (1924). Satyajit Ray picked up his first alphabets during his mother's short stint as a school teacher here. The school was adjudged as one of the twelve best schools in undivided Bengal. Each Annual Prize distribution day used to be a great occasion as Governors, Maharajas and Maharanis used to preside over the ceremonies. Post- Independence, among those who visited the School was Dr KN Katju, C Rajagopalachari and Sri Dharma Vira.

Dr Sarkar died in 1918 creating a void in Hemlata's life. Undaunted, she plunged into harder work. In early 1930's the school was shifted to "German Sahib's House" in its present location i.e. near the railway station. The huge main block was constructed in 1938. Five years later in1943, Hemlata retired from her eventful life at the age of 75 years. Although the vacuum created by her death can never be filled, but by her contribution in the educational field would remain forever as an immortal figure. Having an overwhelming personality that always lovingly demanded and received obedience and discipline, Hemlata is cherished as an epitome of endurance, great visionary and a woman with impregnable spirit. She has left an indelible mark in the educational history of Darjeeling district and its progeny will always be grateful to her for it.

The school now has reached its 100 years. Now, it has a total number of 350 students, 32 teaching staff and seven non-teaching staffs. With its Principal Madam Purnima Roka, the school celebrated its Centenary on 1and 2 September. Out of the two chief guests invited only Asha Gurung, the President of Gorkha Jan Mukti Nari Morcha was present. The celebration began with a prayer ceremony pursued by a programme on Plantation, organised by The Art Of Living. The other highlight of the day was the exhibition put up by the students which included-The History of Maharani's Foundation, Crafts and Hand works and layout of traditional dresses. It was really a feast for the eyes and enlightenment to those who was unaware of Maharani's posh History. The school will be publishing its first magazine by 2009.

Despite its rich past the school now suffers from various problems. Since the school building is surrounded by habitation and there is no proper fencing to keep the school building aloof from the habitation, there is always a danger from trespassers. There is no hostel for the girls due to which a number of them mostly of XI and XII standard commute daily to the school from places like Rimbick, Takdah, Mungpoo etc.

There is no facility of drinking water. The number of classrooms is less along with a dearth of tables and chairs. The school has a small playground not soothing to eyes. Although the school has an area for the construction of girls Hostel, but their hands have been tied due to lack of Funds. It has come into light that many ex-students have come forward to help the school with their donations. But the mystery still remains where those find goes and in whose hands they have been handed. So, any helpful hand can see their donation being utilised well for the improvement of the school, only when it will be handed to the right users, the school authority.

If Maharani is ridden from all its problems, there is no reason why she will not live up to her name but will be celebrating its 500,1000 and so on years. Thanks to Hemlata Sarkar for its foundation, but for its continuation she would love everyone associated with it to come forward with any help they can for the school, since they are not outsiders to the school.


Tuesday, March 2, 2010

False practices in Brahmo Samajes

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: sarbajit roy
Date: Tue, Mar 2, 2010 at 11:13 AM
Subject: [brahmoconferenceorg] False practices in Brahmo Samajes

Over the years, corruption and ritualism have taken over the Samajes. Most Brahmos today have evidently not heard of the 1830 Trust Deed or read it in any great depth. Unfortunately some Brahmo preachers are also included in this group for they perpetuate practices (such as image worship) in the Samajes which are anathema to "True" Brahmos.

Incidentally, Bengali social writer Krishna Dutta has confirmed "image worship of any kind is abhorrent to true Brahmos" in the book "Calcutta, a cultural and literary history" at page 87, also specifically reminding us that the Trust Deed of the Samaj prohibits the admission of any graven image, picture, portrait, statute into the premises). The position now of Brahmos attending these Samajes is akin to that of cannibals bound in a common oath not to reveal or oppose their horrific shared transgessions of God's path.

When True Brahmoism simply means a) abhorrence of idolalation  and b) Adherence to Brahmo Trust principles, can there be any explanation other than "ritual cannibalism" (also known as consuming the body of Christ)  for so many Brahmos to deny their religion and remain silent to the mummery in the Samaj.

Today I shall highlight another cannibalistic practice, the practice of naming Gods, prophets, or other inspired and great men within our Samaj premises. Too often we hear our false preachers list the names of Jesus, Mohamed, Nanak, etc during our common worship as "the procession of Prophets and Saints"). They evidently do this under the Keshubite sponsored delusion that Brahmoism is a kind of Universal Unitarianism where all religions (and their gods / prophets / saints) are one. These false preachers have forgotten the specific words of Trust "but not under or by any other name designation or title peculiarly used for and applied, to any particular being or beings by any man or set of men whatsoever,"

The Reverend Charles Dall had published why he was expelled from the Calcutta Brahmo Samaj for Debendranath "would not hear the name of Christ spoken in His house because some people worship Christ as God". Another Christian Missionary of that era, R.C. Bose in his published book "Brahmoism or History of reformed Hinduism (1884)" attacked the perversions of the antiBrahmos and their 'Hom' to their processions of saints and prophets, thus

"Christ  doubtless occupies a place, perhaps the chief place, among the Prophets and Saints with whose disembodied spirits communion is to be maintained, and He shares the veneration of mankind with Mohammed, who brought down a text from heaven to justify his illicit intercourse with the wife of his adopted son ; Narad, the notorious makebate among the Hindu gods ; Chaitanya, who revived in Bengal the worship of the god of licentiousness, justly called the Bacchus of India; Nanak, who cherished the wild idea of effecting a union between Hinduism and Mohammedanism ; Buddha and his modern imitator, Comte, who tabooed theology and divorced morality from religion ; Theodore Parker, who lived by abusing Christian orthodoxy and wavered between monotheism and pantheism ; Emerson, who believed in nothing but self ! The Christian's blood must be cold indeed who can see the crucified Nazarene, the Captain of his salvation, the Author and Finisher of His faith, degraded to such association without being filled with indignation ! "

Can there be any better example of why our wise forefathers absolutely prohibited the "speaking of names" within the Samaj?  When will our preachers stop their foolery and instead instruct our children in the tenets of our Trust ?  That "God" has no name and is unsearchable ! That "Om" (a single syllable) is only the penultimate step in comprehending that all those names of God are meaningless for He has no name or syllable !!


Tuesday, February 23, 2010

BRAHMOS: An archaic Brahmo catechism (FAQ) from 1867.

From: Malay Sanyal
Date: Mon, Feb 22, 2010 at 5:52 PM
Subject: [brahmoconferenceorg] An archaic Brahmo catechism (FAQ) from 1867.

(sourced from Max Muller, so treat with our usual caution)

Q. Who is the deity of the Brahmos?
A. The One True God, one only without a second, whom all Hindu Sâstras proclaim.

Q. What is the divine worship of the Brahmos?
A. Loving God, and doing the works He loveth.

Q. What is the temple of the Brahmos?
A. The pure heart.

Q. What are the ceremonial observances of the Brahmos?
A. Good works.

Q. What is the sacrifice of the Brahmos?
A. Renunciation of selfishness.

Q. What are the austerities of the Brahmos?
A. Not committing sin. The Mahábhárata says, He who does not commit sin in mind, speech, action, or understanding, performs austerities; not he who drieth up his body.

Q. What is the place of pilgrimage of the Brahmos?
A. The company of the good.

Q. What is the Veda of the Brahmos?
A. Divine knowledge. It is superior to all Vedas. The Veda itself says: The inferior knowledge is the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda, the Atharva Veda, etc.; the superior knowledge is that which treats of God.

Q. What is the most sacred formula of the Brahmos?
A. Be good and do good.

Q. Who is the true Brahman?
A. He who knows Brahma. The Brihadâra{n}yaka-Upanishad says: He who departs from this world knowing God, is a Brahman


Am I still a Brahmo ?

From: Arrow Sinha Roy
Date: Tue, Jan 5, 2010 at 8:32 PM
Subject: Re: [brahmoconferenceorg] Am I still a Brahmo ?


I wish to clarify that the Bhowanipore Samaj 'prayer hall' maintains pristine purity about not conducting upasana in the presence of any object that may be repfresenting ...or which  in course of time, may come to be associated with a divine image. So not just paintings etc  but even photographs are not allowed. When we hold memorial services for the dear departed, the photo is placed in the outside verandah of the Samaj. No Samaj prayer hall should have figurines or statues inside it.

A Sinha Roy

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Re: Haradev Chatterjee, a True Brahmo


Under this head may be included a number of efforts at a reformation of the religions of India, but principally that of which the FOUNDER was Ram Mohan Roy, a Hindu rajah born in Bengal on 14th, August 1774. His ancestors were high caste Brahmins; so he acquired the usual elements of a native education, to which he added Persian, and afterwards Sanskrit. When quite young he began to look into the evidences for and against Hinduism and
other religions professed about him. Having found them altogether unsatisfactory, and even repugnant to his mind, he boldly denounced them. This led to a quarrel with his family and community, though his mother seems to have been convinced of the errors of her religion, but would not give it up. He spent two or three years in Tibet, where he openly denounced
the dogma of the divinity of the Lama somewhat to his peril. In 1803 his father died, having disinherited him, but his brother dying in 1811 he got back what he had sacrificed. He then opposed idolatry the more, and wrote books against it in different languages. In 1820, accepting the morality of Christ's teaching, though not his divinity, he published "The Precepts of Jesus, the Guide to Peace and Happiness". In 1831 he visited England, where, overtasking his strength to meet the many engagements made for him to speak, he died in 1833. In 1830, before leaving for England, he had founded the Brahmo Sabha (a Theistic Society).

In 1842 this society was joined by Babu Debendranath Tagore, a wealthy Brahmin of Calcutta, by which, and also by the spread of the English language, it made rapid progress in different parts with branches in various parts of the country, of which they now claim to have one hundred, with a goodly showing of members. But there are a far greater number of sympathizers who are not willing to come out fully.


They are theistical, believing in one Eternal Being, to whom they pray, but deny a divine revelation, assuming that nature and intuition are sufficient. At the same time they are eclectic, holding that there is some good in all systems of religion, and that there
may be progression in religious belief. This being the case, they progress so fast that no one can keep up with them or tell one week what new development or "new dispensation," as one party now call it, will take place next week. They, however, ignore caste, and
have given up all idolatrous rites, and perform public worship, and as far as they go there is a real reformation, though they do not seem to be in the way to embrace the Gospel fully.


Akin to the Brahmo Somaj are the Prarthana Somaj (Praying Society), and Arya Somaj (Society of Aryans), of Western India; only they have not so fully broken away from Hinduism, from whose ranks they are mostly recruited, though many Mussulmans and Parsees are in sympathy with them. They, however, have some imposing edifices, which are in striking contrast with the temples, mosques, and fire temples around them.

From all this it will be seen that India is full of religion of every variety, Theism, Atheism, Monotheism, Dualism, Polytheism, Pantheism, all of which have had their origin here or hereabouts. And yet here extremes meet where there is the most religion there is the least. What Paul said in addressing the Athenians applies to the whole of Asia; and with all
their millions of gods they need apostles to preach to them the " Unknown God."


Haradev Chatterjee, a True Brahmo

From: sarbajitr
Date: Wed, Feb 17, 2010 at 1:02 PM
Subject: [brahmoconferenceorg] Re: Information about Haradev Chatterjee

I would lay short odds that both refer to the same Haradev Chattapodhyaya who holds many distinctions in Brahmoism.

1) As the Secretary of the Tattwabodhini Sabha from 1840 till 1845.

2) As the second person after Debendranath to take the First covenant in 1843 from Ram Chander Vidyabagish

3) As the close friend and confidante of Debendranath and Akhoy Kumar Dutta, who played a pivotal role in formulating both the second part of the Brahmo Dharma (1848) as well as the Brahmo Anusthan of 1861

4) As the Adi Brahmo who first started the practice of street processions and nagarkirtan which was later copied by future factions.

5) As the father of 2 daughters married to Debendranath's sons. His elder daughter Neepamayi Devi (also spelt as Nipamaya) marrying Hemendranath Tagore and the younger sister Prafullamayee Devi marrying Birendranath (the fourth son).


--- In, Saurav Brahmo <saurav@...> wrote:
> Dr Sanyal is presently in Nepal and has fwd'ed yr email to me.
> We have information on Haradev Chatterjee (all variations) for
> 1) Bolpur (Bhirbhum, W.B.)
> 2) Santragachi (Howrah, W.B.)
> There is also additional information in the Tattwabodhini records.
> Saurav
> >Dear Dr Sanyal
> >
> >Is there any information about Haradev Chatterjee in the Adi Samaj records
> >--
> >Shymal Dutta Basu
> >(Dept of Sociology) UCAM

Ram Mohan Roy
History of the Brahmo Samaj